Sunday, May 30, 2010
Saturday, May 1, 2010
|The creation of the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO), previously known by the acronym, “INTELSAT,” resulted from the efforts of a group of nations to join the United States in 1964 to establish a global communications satellite system. The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization is an intergovernmental organization that incorporates the principle set forth in Resolution 1721 (XVI) of the General Assembly of the United Nations, which establishes that communication by means of satellites should be |
The Organization underwent an important restructuring in 2001 in order to secure the long-term viability of its communications system in a market that is characterized by increasing competition, fast-paced innovations and rising capital costs, and in order to attract private investments. The Assembly of Parties, the highest decision-making body of the Organization, in 2000 approved the legal instruments and framework necessary to create a commercial and pro-competitive company named “Intelsat, Ltd.,” to operate the satellite system and provide space segment capacity in a manner consistent with the core principles of global coverage and connectivity, lifeline connectivity and non-discriminatory access. For this purpose, ITSO transferred its global satellite system, including the geostationary-orbital locations, “landing rights” and the brand-name of “Intelsat,” to Intelsat, Ltd. Since this transfer in 2001, Intelsat has invested US$ 2.6 billion to substantially improve the global connectivity and coverage that it offers. As a result, Intelsat's global communications network, which was composed of 19 satellites in 2001, has expanded to 53 satellites through new launches and acquisitions, while Intelsat simultaneously has expanded its terrestrial facilities, including teleports, points of presence and fiber connectivity.
Since its establishment, the Organization has proved to be an efficient catalyst for global cooperation in satellite communications. It has promoted cross-border flows of information that are vital to business, trade and peace, and it has been instrumental in linking the developing countries to the global economy and enhancing the competitiveness of their economies.
Since 18 July 2001, ITSO has been restructured as follows:
At the intergovernmental level
• Assembly of Parties is the governing body of the Organization, currently comprised of the 150 member countries of ITSO, and meets normally every two years in ordinary Assemblies. The Assembly of Parties elects a Panel of Legal Experts that resolves disputes in connection with the Agreement between two or more member countries, or between ITSO and one or more member country.
• Executive Organ is headed by the Director General, who is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and the legal representative of ITSO, and is responsible to the Assembly of Parties. The Director General supervises and monitors Intelsat, Ltd.’s provision of public telecommunications services. An Advisory Committee comprised of representatives of 23 member countries provides consultative advice to the Director General on any matters requested.
At the operating level
• Intelsat, Ltd. is a private and competitive company based in Washington, DC and headquartered in Bermuda. The corporate structure of Intelsat, Ltd. includes several subsidiaries established under the laws of various countries. Intelsat Global Service, established under U.S. law, is located in Washington, DC, and employs the majority of the 800 staff. The United States and United Kingdom were the two countries selected by the Organization to manage licensing issues. The United States is responsible for licensing the launch and operation of satellites for “Fixed Satellite Services” (“FSS”) in C- and Ku- bands, while the United Kingdom is responsible for “Broadcasting Satellite Services” (“BSS”) and FSS in Ka-bands. Within their responsibility as the notifying administrations of Intelsat, Ltd., the United States and the United Kingdom work with the Director General on potential activities to expand access to lifeline countries and to maintain global connectivity and service to these countries.
Friday, April 30, 2010
The Pakistan Telecommunication Ordinance 1994, established the primary regulatory framework for the telecommunication industry including the establishment of an authority. Thereafter, Telecommunication (Re-Organization) Act no XVII was promulgated in 1996 that aimed to reorganize the telecom sector of Pakistan. Under Telecom Reorganization Act 1996, Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) was established to regulate the establishment, operation and maintenance of telecommunication systems, and the provision of telecom services.
PTA has its headquarters at Islamabad and zonal offices located at Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi and Muzaffarabad.